The 1993 South African constitution named no less than eleven official languages, of which English and Afrikaans are but two, but English is increasingly recognized as the lingua franca. New words were also needed for some geographical features which had no obvious English parallel in the limited experience of the settlers (e.g. Old English - 400 - 1150 AD. Mddle English - 1150 - 1450 AD . Some words needed to describe the Native American lifestyle were also accepted (e.g. The scholarly study of American dialects began. In many cases, the original indigenous words were very difficult to render in English, and have often been mangled almost beyond recognition (e.g. The invention of radio in the 1920s, and then television in the 1930s, disseminated this archetypal English accent to the masses and further entrenched its position, despite the fact that it was only spoken by about 1 in 50 in the general population. online, noob, flamer, spam, phishing, larping, whitelist, download, blog, vblog, blogosphere, emoticon, podcast, warez, trolling, hashtag, wifi, bitcoin, selfie, etc). 1509 End of Henry VII's reign – Begin reign of Henry VIII. foothill, notch, bluff, gap, divide, watershed, clearing, etc). One such peak for the English language was the Early Modern period of the 16th to 18th Century, a period sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of English Literature (other peaks include the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century, and the computer and digital age of the late 20th Century, which is still continuing today). The slaves transported by the British to work in the plantations of the American south and the islands of the West Indies were mainly from a region of West Africa rich in hundreds of different languages, and most were superb natural linguists, often speaking anywhere between three and six African languages fluently. In 1852, the German linguist, Jacob Grimm, called English "the language of the world", and predicted it was "destined to reign in future with still more extensive sway over all parts of the globe". There was a mid-century reaction within Britain against what George Orwell described as the “ugly and inaccurate” contemporary English of the time. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. 1945 End of the Second World War. WRONG! 1616: Shakespeare dies. Vowel pronunciation became shorter and more words from around the world entered everyday English. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. The first is the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society. Although English was always - and remains - a minority language, spoken by less than 10% of South Africans, Afrikaans was seen by the 80% black majority as the language of authority and repression (the word apartheid, in addition to trek, remains South Africa's best known contribution to the English lexicon), and English represented for them a means of achieving an international voice. But India gave us such everyday words as pyjamas, thug, bungalow, cot, jungle, loot, bangle, shampoo, candy, tank and many others. Some British slang words, especially Cockney terms and words from the underground “Flash” language of the criminal classes, became more commonly used in Australia than in Britain (e.g. Eliot to William Faulkner to Samuel Beckett and, perhaps most emphatically, the innovations of the Irishman, James Joyce, in “Ulysses” and “Finnegan’s Wake” (although, of the hundreds of new words in these works, only monomyth and quark have enjoyed any currency, and that rather limited). Before English. For simplicity, adjectives often stand in for adverbs (e.g. The Early Modern English Period By 1500, English had already evolved to resemble Modern English more closely, though is still retained some inflections that were lost in Modern English. A timeline of all the kings and queens of England from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present. The explosion in electronic and computer terminology in the latter part of the 20th Century (e.g. Perhaps in reaction to the perceived appropriation or co-option of English by the United States, a certain amount of language snobbery continued to grow in England. https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/a-brief-history-of-the-english-language Modern English separates into two eras, Early and Late Modern English. For instance, Australia gave us a set of words (not particularly useful outside the context of Australia itself) like boomerang, kangaroo, budgerigar, etc. linea de tiempo de la Didáctica y su evolución. Variations of English creoles gradually mixed with other creole forms based on French, Spanish and Portuguese, leading to a diverse range of English varieties throughout the Caribbean islands, as well as adjacent areas of Central and South America. Noah the Webster´s American Dictionary of English Language was published. Public timelines ; Search; Sign in; Sign up; Late Modern English Timeline created by gustavowouters. raccoon, opossum, moose, chipmunk, skunk, tomato, squash, hickory, etc). 1485 Beginning of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII assumes the throne Central Royal authority was strengthened and private feudal armies suppressed. Those in power during this time period are the Tudor and Stuart Dynasties. Neologisms are being added all the time, including recent inclusions such as fashionista, metrosexual, McJob, McMansion, wussy, bling, nerd, pear-shaped, unplugged, fracking, truthiness, locavore, parkour, sexting, crowdsourcing, regift, meme, selfie, earworm, meh, diss, suss, emo, twerk, schmeat, chav, ladette, punked, vaping, etc, etc. During all those years, a great number of Brithish settlers arrive so the English language gain relevance. During this time, there began to be a standardization of printed language due to the arrival of the printing press in England in 1475. (from WorldGathering.net) Many more new words were coined for the new products, machines and processes that were developed at this time (e.g. Noah Webster is often credited with single-handedly changing American spelling, particularly through his dictionaries: “The American Spelling Book” (first published in 1788, although it ran to at least 300 editions over the period between 1788 and 1829, and became probably the best selling book in American history after “The Bible”), “The Compendious Dictionary of the English Language” (1806), and “The American Dictionary of the English Language” (1828). Part of the English History guide at Britain Express. Although supplements were issued in 1933 and 1972-6, it was not revised or added to until 1989, when the current (second) edition was published, listing over 615,000 words in 20 huge volumes, officially the world’s largest dictionary. Both Thomas Jefferson and Noah Webster were totally convinced that American English would evolve into a completely separate language. Early Modern English - 1450 - 1700 AD. the spelling of theater and center instead of theatre and centre) and many others may well have happened anyway. igloo, anorak, toboggan, canoe, kayak, parka, muskeg, caribou, moose, etc), as well as the French influence (e.g. At least half of the influential scientific and technological output between 1750 and 1900 was written in English. Verb forms in particular are simplified (e.g. The 20th Century was, among other things, a century of world wars, technological transformation, and globalization, and each has provided a source of new additions to the lexicon. But he was largely responsible for the revised spelling of words like color and honor (instead of the British colour and honour), traveler and jeweler (for traveller and jeweller), check and mask (for cheque and masque), defense and offense (for defence and offence), plow for plough, as well as the rather illogical adoption of aluminum instead of aluminium. In addition, a whole body of acronyms, contractions and shorthands for use in email, social networking and cellphone texting has grown up, particularly among the young, including the relatively well-known lol, ttfn, btw, omg, wtf, plz, thx, ur, l8ter, etc. Jamaican creole (known locally as “Patwa”, for patois) was one of the deepest in the Caribbean, partly because of the sheer numbers transported there, and the accent there is still so thick as to be almost undecipherable. Late Modern English (1800-Present) The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Of these groupings that of the West Saxons in the central south was destined to become the strongest. The period is marked by standardisation as a result of the printing press , renewed Latin influence during the Renaissance and the ongoing process of the Great Vowel Shift . notus for notice, bole for bold, ansur for answer, skade for scared, etc). Due to the deliberate practice of shipping slaves of different language backgrounds together (in an attempt to avoid plots and rebellions), the captives developed their own English-based pidgin language, which they used to communicate with the largely English-speaking sailors and landowners, and also between themselves. big big) are often used as intensifiers, although not in this particular passage. As early as 1789, for example, Noah Webster had predicted “a language in North America as different from the future language of England as the modern Dutch, Danish and Swedish are from the German or from one another”. c.5000 BC. c.500 BC. squash is from the native quonterquash or asquutasquash, depending on the region; racoon is from raugraughcun or rahaugcum; hickory is from pawcohiccora; etc). Late Modern English developed in a new direction due to huge changes in vocabulary after 1800. Parallel to this, science fiction literature has contributed it own vocabulary to the common word-stock, including terms such as robotics, hyperspace, warp-speed, cyberpunk, droid, nanotech, nanobot, etc. First, we will discuss the TUDORS: In power between 1485-1603; The Tudor Family came into power during the Wars of the Roses. stamped-chloe . Late 5c onwards England divides roughly into seven kingdoms which reflect the tribes occupying the relevant areas. Late Modern English. It lasted until 1820 It lasted until 1820 1,805 BCE It contained 415,000 entries supported by nearly 2 million citations, and ran to over 15,000 pages in 12 volumes, and was immediately accepted as the definitive guide to the English language. Language is a large part of our everyday lives and shapes our experience of the world. Wells. Perhaps the best-known example is the American use of gotten which has long since faded from use in Britain (even though forgotten has survived). The speech is also a good example of what was considered Received Pronunciation at the time. Sometime in the middle of that century, Germanic tribes crossed the North Sea and invaded the island we now know as the United … All the events are represented on the interactive timeline and can be visualized. Late Modern English - 1700 AD - present day "correct" according to the dictates of Robert Lowth's "Grammar") were important social markers, and the use of non-standard vocabulary or grammar would have been seen as a mark of vulgarity to be avoided at all costs. New Zealand was keen to emphasize its national identity (and particularly its differences from neighbouring Australia), and this influenced its own version of English, as did the incorporation of native Maori words into the language. In our faddy, disposable, Internet-informed, digital age, there are even word trends that appear to be custom-designed to be short-lived and epehemeral, words and phrases that are considered no longer trendy once they reach anything close to mainstream usage. For 1914-1918, see Timeline of World War I; For 1939-1945 see Timeline of World War II; Contemporary period. The resulting stripped-down language may be crude but it is usually serviceable and efficient. , barrage, boondocks, roadblock, snafu, boffin, brainwashing, spearhead, etc, are all military terms which have made their way into standard English during the World Wars. Many new words and slang expressions were also introduced from the military. Modern Britain timeline 1945-2000 Here is a timeline for modern Britain, from 1945, the end of the Second World War and Atlee's Labour Government, through Thatcher's years, to the year 2000. New Zealand began to be settled by European whalers and missionaries in the 1790s, although an official colony was not established there until 1840. President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to use these spellings for all federal publications and they quickly caught on, although there was still stiff resistance to such recommended changes as tuf, def, troble, yu, filosofy, etc. Although words like oxygen, protein, nuclear and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, they could be (and were) created from Latin and Greek roots. The event that began the transition from Old English to Middle English was the Norman Conquest of 1066, when William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy and, later, William I of England) invaded the island of Britain from his home base in northern France, and settled in his new acquisition along with his nobles and court. Historical events, in turn, shape the changes that occur in a language over time. The numbers of African slaves in the America alone grew from just twenty in 1619 to over 4 million at the time of the American abolition of slavery after the Civil War in 1865 (the British had abolished the slave trade earlier, in 1807). A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. A pidgin is a reduced language that results from extended contact between people with no language in common. 1611: King James Bible published, which has influenced English speech and writing down to the present day. During the Early Modern English period (1500 - 1800) the Great Vowel Shift occurred. 1513 Battle of Foldden English victory over Scotland. Descubrimiento y estudio de la teoría celular. Celts inhabit much of Europe, and beginning to … The early 19th century language of Jane Austen appears to all intents and purposes to be quite modern in vocabulary, grammar and style, but it hides some subtle distinctions in meaning which have since been lost (e.g. serviette, tuque) from Lower Canada/Quebec. Interestingly, this version used the American “-ize” ending for words such as characterize, itemize, etc, rather than the British practice (both then and now) of spelling them characterise, itemise, etc. In some cases, old words were given entirely new meanings and connotation (e.g. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. The Dutch had been in South Africa since the 1650s, but the wave of British settlers soon began to anglicize the Afrikaans (Dutch) and black population. Interestingly, some English pronunciations and usages “froze” when they arrived in America while they continued to evolve in Britain itself (sometimes referred to as “colonial lag”), so that, in some respects, American English is closer to the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. train, engine, reservoir, pulley, combustion, piston, hydraulic, condenser, electricity, telephone, telegraph, lithograph, camera, etc). Distinctions are commonly drawn between the Early Modern Period (roughly 1450-1800) and Late Modern English (1800 to the present). Books set in France. Many nationalities established their own centres: the Amish or Pennsylvania Dutch (actually Germans, as in Deutsch) tended to stay in their isolated communities, and developed a distinctive English with a strong German accent and an idiosyncratic syntax; many Germans also settled in Wisconsin and Indiana; Norwegians settled in Minnesota and the Dakotas; Swedes in Nebraska; etc. However, since the Second World War, a greater permissiveness towards regional English varieties has taken hold in England, both in education and in the media. Early and Late Modern English Timeline . Brer Lion bin a hunt) or left out completely (e.g. canoe, squaw, papoose, wigwam, moccasin, tomahawk), although many other supposedly Native-derived words and phrases (such as brave, peace-pipe, pale-face, war-path, etc) were actually spurious and a product of the fertile imaginations of 19th Century American romantic novelists. Stretching from the late 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, Modernism reached its peak in the 1960s; Post-modernism describes … an ask, a build, a solve, a fail, etc). Dis/dem/dey are used for this/them/they in order to avoid the difficult English “th” sound, and many other usages are familiar from modern Caribbean accents (e.g. English is widely used in government, civil service, courts, schools, media, road signs, stores and business correspondence in these countries, and, because more British emigrants settled there than in the more difficult climate of West Africa, a more educated and standard English-speaking population grew up there, and there was less need for the development of pidgin languages. The rise of so-called “New Englishes” (modern variants or dialects of the language, such as Australian English, South African English, Caribbean English, South Asian English, etc) raised, for some, the spectre of the possible fragmentation of the English language into mutually unintelligible languages, much as occurred when Latin gave rise to the various Romance languages (French, Spanish, Italian, etc) centuries ago. For a timeline of events from 1801 to 1900, see Timeline of the 19th century; For a timeline of events from 1901 to 1945, see Timeline of the 20th century. It is now normal to divide the time since the end of the Middle English period into the Early Modern English period (1500-1700) and the Late Modern English period (1700-1900). Many of Webster’s more radical spelling recommendations (e.g. c.6000 BC. He worked on this project for 36 years from 1879 until his death in 1915, and his results were completed by others and published in 1928 as the “Oxford English Dictionary”. Beginning of Renaissance up to Age of Enlightenment . mout for mouth, ting for thing, gwine for going, etc). There had been British, French and Portuguese expeditions to the east coast of Canada even before the end of the 15th Century, but the first permanent European settlement was by France in 1608. In History. The most recent stage in the evolution of the language is commonly called Present-Day English (PDE). Noah the Webster´s American Dictionary of English Language was published. The scholarly study of American dialects began. Later, the Internet it gave rise to (the word Internet itself is derived form Latin, as are audio, video, quantum, etc) generated its own set of neologisms (e.g. English in Canada has also been influenced by successive waves of immigration, from the influx of Loyalists from the south fleeing the American Revolution, to the British and Irish who were encouraged to settle the land in the early 19th Century to the huge immigration from all over the world during the 20th Century. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. It is now normal to divide the time since the end of the Middle English period into the Early Modern English period (1500-1700) and the Late Modern English period (1700-1900). At the peak of immigration, from 1901 to 1905, America absorbed a million Italians, a million Austro-Hungarians, half a million Russians and tens of thousands each from many other countries. 1509 End of Henry VII's reign – Begin reign of Henry VIII. The Philippines was an American colony for the first half of the 20th Century and the influence of American English remains strong there. Late Modern English - 1700 AD - present day. At the same time, regional accents were further denigrated and marginalized. The colonization of Canada proceeded quite separately from that of America. The German “Iron Chancellor” Otto van Bismarck would later ruefully remark that “the most significant event of the 20th Century will be the fact that the North Americans speak English”. But the American use of words like fall for the British autumn, trash for rubbish, hog for pig, sick for ill, guess for think, and loan for lend are all examples of this kind of anachronistic British word usage. chum, swag, bash, cadge, grub, dollop, lark, crack, etc), and some distinctively Australian terms were originally old English words which largely died out outside of Australia (e.g. Although now just a “subsidiary official language” (one of 15 official languages in a country which boasts 1,652 languages and dialects), and much less important than Hindi, English continues to be used as the lingua franca in the legal system, government administration, the army, business, media and tourism. Pronunciation, grammar, and spelling are largely the same, but Late-Modern English has many more words. 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